lesson 20 index        printable pages

20.1 Principal parts, tenses, voices

 

In lesson 19 we started citing verbs with four principal parts. We add now the fifth. This is what these five items represent:

I Present Active; II Future Active; III; Aorist Active; IV; Perfect Active; V; Perfect Middle-Passive.

Why grant the Middle-Passive Perfect its own principal part, since the Present Middle-Passive does not merit a separate item in the citation?

Because, while in many verbs the Middle-Passive Perfect may be derived from the Active, in many others it may not...

παύω, a verb that was used in the three voices, active, middle, and passive, will help us to complete this overview, adding the perfect tenses to the chart we saw in 9.4. To prevent confusions we will translate the active voice as: to stop (i.e. someone or something), the middle voice as: to cease, and the passive voice as to be stopped.

 

                

 

A few examples of verbs where the Middle-Passive Perfect is different enough from the Active Perfect to warrant a separate principal part will justify it:

 

ἐσθίω, ἔδομαι, ἔφαγον, ἐδήδοκα, ἐδήδεσμαι    to eat

φαίνω, φανῶ, ἔφηνα, πέφαγκα, πέφασμαι    to show

φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγκον / ἤνεγκα, ἐνήνοχα, ἐνένεγμαι     to bear, carry

 

CONJUGATION OF THE MIDDLE-PASSIVE PERFECT

To form a regular middle-passive perfect indicative, such as ππαυμαι, you combine the following elements:

   reduplication + present stem+ personal endings

Just as in the active voice, the forms of the perfect do not include a thematic vowel as a connector: the tense suffix is applied directly to the stem. In contrast to the active perfect, the middle-passive perfect does not include a tense suffix.

 

 

Indicative

Imperative

Subjunctive

Infinitive

Participle

Perfect

 

 πέ-παυ-μαι

 πέ-παυ-σαι

 πέ-παυ-ται

 πε-παύ-μεθα

 πέ-παυ-σθε

 πέ-παυ-νται

         sg

2. πέ-παυ-σο

3. πε-παύ-σθω

        pl

2. πέ-παυ-σθε

3.  πε-παύ-σθων

πε-παυ-μένος, η, ον

πε-παυ-μένος, η, ον  ᾖς

πε-παυ-μένος, η, ον  ᾖ

πε-παυ-μένοι, αι, α   ὦμεν

πε-παυ-μένοι, αι, α   ἦτε

πε-παυ-μένοι, αι, α   ὦσιν

πε-πα-σθαι

 πε-παυ-μένος, η, ον

Pluperfect

 

ἐ-πε-παύ-μην

ἐ-πέ-παυ-σο

ἐ-πέ-παυ-το

ἐ-πε-παύ-μεθα

ἐ-πέ-παυ-σθε

ἐ-πέ-παυ-ντο

 

                                              Only the Indicative Mood has a Pluperfect