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19.2.b Forms of the Active Perfect Participle

 

We will construct the perfect active participle following the same steps as we did in 15.3 to form the present active participle.

We start with the ACTIVE PERFECT PARTICIPLE, which has three endings, masculine, feminine, and neuter. The masculine and neuter belong to the third declension, and the feminine follows the first declension. Starting with the masculine, we create first the form of the genitive. The formula is

 

(reduplicated) perfect stem+ the tense suffix κ + ο + mark of the perfect participle τ + genitive ending  -ος

 

The genitive sg of masc and neuter is thus:  πε-παιδευ-κ-ό-τ-ος

Now the nominative. Consonantal stems of the 3rd declension tend to mark their nominative, either with v or by lengthening the stem vowel. The perfect participle does both in the mas nom sg: πε-παιδευ-κ-ο-τς* > πε-παιδευ-κ-ώς, since, as we know,τ (a dental) is dropped before σ : this will occur both in the masculine and in the neuter (that has no lengthening, precisely in contrast to the masculine).

 

Being an adjective of more than one gender, the participle is cited in the nominative. I add at this point the ready-made feminine, because the process that leads to its form is slightly more complicated :

 πεπαιδευκώς, πεπαιδευκυῖα, πεπαιδευκός = having taught, one who has taught, etc.1

 

Notes

1) When the aorist participle denotes an action prior to that of the main verb, its translation is inevitably the same that we would give a perfect participle in the same function: παιδεύσας and πεπαιδευκώς would both be translated as “having ferried.”

2) τ is dropped before σ just as in the masculine  nominative sg.

Here is the complete declension of the perfect active participle of  παιδεύω, παιδεύσω, ἐπαίδευσα, πεπαίδευκα = to teach, educate

 

singular

 

masculine

feminine

neuter

nom

 πεπαιδευκώς

πεπαιδευκυῖα

 πεπαιδευκός

gen

 πεπαιδευκότ-ος

πεπαιδευκυίας

 πεπαιδευκότ-ος

dat

 πεπαιδευκότ-ι

πεπαιδευκυίᾳ

 πεπαιδευκότ-ι

acc

 πεπαιδευκότ-α

πεπαιδευκυῖαν

= nom

voc

= nom

= nom

= nom

 

plural

 

masculine

feminine

neuter

nom

 πεπαιδευκότ-ες

πεπαιδευκυῖαι

 πεπαιδευκότ-α

gen

 πεπαιδευκότ-ων

πεπαιδευκυιῶν

 πεπαιδευκότ-ων

dat

 πεπαιδευκότ-σι >

πεπαιδευκόσι(ν)

πεπαιδευκυίαις

 πεπαιδευκότ-σι >

πεπαιδευκόσι(ν)

acc

 πεπαιδευκότ-ας

πεπαιδευκυίας

= nom

voc

= nom

= nom

= nom