lesson 16 index printable pages
16.4 Adverbial clauses studied so far
For an introduction to the concept of adverbial clauses, go to 13.3. You are already familiar with the basic types of adverbial clauses listed in this lesson, because we have been using some of them from the beginning of the course. Most are introduced by a subordinating conjunction1 and in some of them there is an element in the main clause that serves as a marker. So far we have only found adverbial clauses with the verb in the Indicative mood; that is why we have been able to handle them painlessly.2
Introduced by several conjunctions meaning “when”: ὅτε, ὁπότε,
“when, after ”ἐπεί, ἐπειδή,
and by ἕως meaning “while.” Negation: οὐ
temporal clause main clause
1) (ὅτε ταῦτα ἦν,) [σχεδὸν μέσαι ἦσαν νύκτες]
S V adv S... V ...S
When this was //taking place//, it was about midnight. (Xenophon)
temporal clause main clause
2) (ἔως ἐστὶ καιρός,) [ἀντιλάβεσθε τῶν πραγμάτων.] (Demosthenes)
V S V gen w/V
While there is opportunity, take in hand public affairs.
Introduced by several conjunctions meaning “because”: ὅτι, διότι
“since”: ἐπεί, ἐπειδή,
and by ὡς meaning “as.” Negation: οὐ
[ὁ Ἰησοῦς περιῆγεν πάσας τὰς πόλεις καὶ τὰς κώμας]
S V .......................... D O ......................................
(διότι ἐβούλετο κηρύσσειν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις.)
conj V compl infin D O ............... I O ................
Jesus went around all the cities and towns because he wanted to proclaim the Gospel to all men.
Introduced by ὡς or ὥσπερ Negation: οὐ
There may be an adverb meaning "thus" in the main clause, e.g. οὕτως.
ἔστιν γὰρ οὕτως ὥσπερ οὑ̂τος ἐννέπει
For it is so, just as he says
With the verb in the comparison is omitted, instead of a clause we have a "comparative construction," which I prefer to call simply "comparison."
καὶ γὰρ δὴ πιεζόμενοι οἱ φοίνικες ὑπὸ βάρους ἄνω οἱ ὄνοι οἱ κανθήλιοι:
For it is a well known fact that date-palms, when under heavy pressure, bend upward like the backs of pack-asses.
Introduced most often by a conjunction meaning “if”: εἰ Negation: μή
main clause ... conditional clause ... main clause
[πᾶς λόγος (εἰ ἄπεστι τὰ πράγματα,) μάταιόν τι φαίνεται3 καὶ κενόν.]
------- S ------ V S ....... PN ....... V ...... PN
All speech, if deeds are absent, appears a vain and empty thing.
Introduced most often by “even if”: καὶ εἰ, εἰ καί Negation: μή
main clause concessive clause
[γελᾷ ὁ μῶρος] (εἰ καί τι μὴ γελοῖόν ἐστιν.]
V S S PN V
A fool laughs even if something is not funny.
Note 1: Basic meanings are given for the conjunctions listed here. Some of them, you will notice, may have more than one value, and may therefore introduce more than one type of adverbial clause.
Note 2: Some of these clauses may take another mood (Subjunctive or Optative, sometimes with accompanying particles), but then they acquire an additional connotation (e.g. a condition may correspond, rather than to simple "if," to English "if ever").
Note 3: "to appear" is a linking verb.