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11.5: “Type 2a adjectives”: adjectives of the third declension with  nasal stems

 

I adopt a classification of Greek adjectives in two types for the sole purpose of identifying them in this course.  Earlier we called adjectives that follow the  2nd, 1st, and 2nd declension in the masc, fem, and neuter, respectively, “Type 1 adjectives.”  We now begin the study of adjectives that follow, at least partially, the 3rd declension.  I call them “Type 2” and identify the different subgroups of this type on the basis of the stem sounds.  In this lesson we study “Type 2a” adjectives, which have nasal stems. 

As an introduction, we return to the nouns with nasal stems in the third declension that we studied in  11.3

 

 

Stem

Nominative

Mark of the nominative

Citation

nouns ending in the dental nasal     ν

   αἰων-

   αἰών

no mark: the vowel is long throughout

   ὁ αἰών, αἰῶνος

   δαιμον-

   δαίμων

long vowel

   ὁ δαίμων,   δαίμονος 

 

Note that I refer to nouns whose general stem ends in  ν,  not in  ντ like,  for instance,  ὁ γέρων, γέροντος. This noun and similar ones have a nominative ending in ν , but only because the final t was dropped.  

The noun that interests us here is   δαίμων, δαίμονος.  It shows a long/short contrast between the nom stem and the general stem. So do the adjectives of the type  εὐδαίμων, εὔδαιμον.  The citation form of adjectives, as we know, does not include  nom/gen but the nom in all its genders.  The citation of this adjective has two forms: the first, εὐδαίμων, is used for masc and fem,  and the second, εὔδαιμον, is the neuter.  

 In ancient Greek  δαίμων meant "divinity, spirit," not necesarily malevolous; later, however, it acquired the connotation of "devil, evil spirit."  The adjective εὐδαίμων, εὔδαιμον  was an ancient Greek compound of  δαίμων and, since the adverb εὖ means "well," it meant "fortunate, prosperous." 

The long vowel will appear only in the masc / fem nominative.  The neuter nom/acc and all the other forms of any gender in the declension  have the short vowel  ο.  Here is a chart:

singular

 

masc and fem

neuter

Observations

nom  

    εὐδαίμων

    εὔδαιμον

When the adjective has three syllables, in the neuter the accent recedes one syllable, against the general rule. 

gen

 εὐδαίμον-ος

Gen and dat have the same forms in all three genders

dat

 εὐδαίμον-ι

acc 

   εὐδαίμον-α

    εὔδαιμον

Masc/fem acc =  neuter plural

plural

 

masc and fem

neuter

Observations

nom  

    εὐδαίμον-ες

   εὐδαίμον-α

Neuter plural = masc/fem acc

gen

εὐδαιμόν-ων

Gen and dat have the same forms in all three genders

dat

εὐδαίμο-σι(ν)

The dental  ν drops before  σ

acc 

   εὐδαίμον-ας

    εὐδαίμον-α

Neuter plural = masc/fem acc