Vocabulary in Lessons 1-8

Try to remember the highlighted vocabulary



, , τό  = the



ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ = angel, messenger

ἀδελφός, οῦ, ὁ = brother

ἀθλητής, οῦ, ὁ  = athlete   

Αἵδης, ου, ὁ = Hades, both the underworld and its god

Αἰνείας, ου, ὁ  = Aeneas (mythic Trojan hero said to have founded Rome)

ἄμπελος, ου, ἡ = vine

ἀνάπαυλα, ης, ἡ  =  rest, pause

ἄνθρωπος, ου, ὁ  = man (human being:  ἡ ἄνθρωπος means the woman)

ἀοιδός, οῦ, ὁ  = bard

ἀπορία, ας, ἡ = straits, lack of a solution

ἀπόστολος, ου, ὁ = apostle

ἄργυρος, ου, ὁ = silver

ἀρετή, ῆς, ἡ = excellence, virtue, courage

ἀρχή, ῆς, ἡ = beginning, rule

βίος, ου, ὁ  = life

βωμός, οῦ, ὁ = altar

γαλαθηνόν, οῦ, τό   = (adj. used as a noun) suckling  

γεωργός, οῦ, ὁ  = farmer

γνώμη, ης, ἡ = proverb, opinion

γωνία, ας, ἡ =  corner

δένδρον, ου, τό = tree, plant

δημοκρατία, ας, ἡ  =  democracy

διδάσκαλος, ου, ὁ  = teacher

δίκη, ης, ἡ = justice

δόξα, ης, ἡ = opinion, reputation, glory

δοῦλος, ου, ὁ  = slave

δῶρον, ου, τό  = gift

εὐαγγέλιον, ου, τό = gospel

εἰρήνη, ης, ἡ = peace

ἐκκλησία, ας, ἡ = assembly; (later) church

ἐλευθερία, ας, ἡ = freedom

ἐπιθυμία, ας, ἡ = desire

ἐπιστολή, ῆς, ἡ = letter

ἔργον, ου, τό = work, deed

Ἑρμῆς, οῦ, ὁ = Hermes, a Greek god

Ἔρως, Ἔρωτος, ὁ  =  Love

εὐτέλεια, ας, ἡ = thrift, frugality

εὐχή, ῆς, ἡ = prayer

ἡδονή, ῆς, ἡ = pleasure

ἡμέρα, ας, ἡ = day

Ἡραῖον, ου, τό  = a temple of the goddess Hera

θάλασσα (Attic dialect θάλαττα), ης, ἡ = sea

θάνατος, ου, ὁ = death

θεά, ᾶς, ἡ = goddess

θεός, οῦ, ὁ = god, God

θηρίον, ου, τό = wild animal, beast

θησαυρός, οῦ, ὁ = treasury

ἰατρός, οῦ, ὁ = doctor

ἱερόν, οῦ, τό = temple

Ἰησοῦς, οῦ, ὁ = Jesus.  A contracted noun, to be studied later.

ἵππος, ου, ὁ = horse

Ἰωάν(ν)ης = John

καρδία, ας, ἡ = heart

κεφαλή, ῆς, ἡ = head

κόσμος, ου, ὁ  = world

κοτύλη, ης, ἡ = cup

κραυγή, ῆς, ἡ = shouts, a shouting

κόρη, ης, ἡ = girl

κόσμος, ου, ὁ  = world

κύριος, ου, ὁ = master, Lord

λίθος, ου, ὁ = rock, stone

λόγος, ου, ὁ = story, reason; in Biblical Greek = word

λύπη, ης, ἡ = grief

μαθητής, οῦ, ὁ = student, disciple

Μίλων = Milon of Croton  

νεανίας, ου, ὁ = young man

νόσος, ου, ἡ = disease 

νῶτον, ου, τό = the back

ξένος, ου, ὁ = guest / host, stranger.  Cf. xenophobia

ξόανον, ου, τό = carved image

ὁδός, οῦ, ἡ = way, journey  

οἰκία, ας, ἡ or οἶκος, ου, ὁ = house

οἶνος, ου, ὁ = wine

ὄνος, ου, ὁ = donkey

παιδίον, ου, τό = child

παράδεισος, ου, ὁ = garden, paradise

πεδίον, ου, τό = plain, field

πέτρα, ας, ἡ = rock, crag

πηγή, ῆς, ἡ  = a spring, source 

πλατεῖα, ας, ἡ  = wide road, street

πλοῖον, ου, τό = ship

ποιητής, οῦ, ὁ = poet

πολίτης, ου, ὁ = citizen

πόλεμος, ου, ὁ = war

πόνος, ου, ὁ = toil, labor

ποταμός, οῦ, ὁ = river

προφήτης, ου, ὁ = prophet

σάββατον, ου, τό = the Sabbath

σιγή, ῆς, ἡ = silence

σῖτος, , ου, ὁ = food

σκηνή, ῆς, ἡ = tent  

στάδιον, ου, τό  = stadium and the standard length thereof, a stade (app. 607 ft)

σύμμαχος, ου, ὁ  = ally

συναγογή, ῆς, ἡ = gathering, place of meeting, synagogue

Σωκράτης, ους, ὁ (3rd declension) = Socrates

ταῦρος, ου, ὁ =  bull

τέκνον, ου, τό = child

τέχνη, ης, ἡ = art, skill, cunning device

τόλμα, ης, ἡ = courage, daring

τύχη, ης, ἡ = chance, fortune, destiny

ὕδωρ, τὸ  (neuter of the 3rd declension, not studied yet) = water

υἱός, οῦ, ὁ = son

ὕλη, ης, ἡ = forest, wood

ὕπνος, ου, ὁ = sleep

ὑποκριτής, οῦ, ὁ = actor, hypocrite

Φαρισαῖος, α, ον = Pharisee

φάρμακον, ου, τό = drug, remedy

φθόνος, ου, ὁ = envy, jealousy

φίλος, ου, ὁ  = friend

χαρά, ᾶς, ἡ = joy

Χριστός, οῦ, ὁ = Christ

χρυσός, οῦ, ὁ = gold

χώρα, ας, ἡ = land, countryside

ψυχή, ῆς, ἡ   = the breath of life, spirit; later = soul

ὥρα, ας, ἡ  = season, hour



ἀγαθοποιέω > ῶ, ἀγαθοποιήσω  = to do good, to do what is right and proper

ἀγγέλλω, ἀγγελέω > ῶ = to announce

ἄγω, ἄξω  = to lead; ἄγομαι = lead away for oneself, take for oneself

ἀγωνίζομαι = to compete

αἰσθάνομαι = to perceive (through the senses).  Cf "aesthetic."

ἀκούω = to hear

ἀλλάσσω (Attic ἀλλάττω) = to change  (someone or something into something else); ἀλλάσσομαι (Attic ἀλλάττομαι) = to exchange something (acc) for something else (gen)

ἀμείβω, ἀμείψω =  to exchange one for one; ἀμείβομαι = to take turns

ἀσπάζομαι, ἀσπάσομαι =  to welcome kindly, embrace

βαίνω = to go, walk; ἀναβαίνω = to walk up or upon, embark;  διαβαίνω = cross

βάλλω, βαλέω > ῶ  = to throw; κατα-βάλλω  = to throw down

βαπτίζω, βαπτίσω = to immerse, baptize

βλάπτω, βλάψω = to harm

βλέπω (ἐς, εἰς + acc) = to look; προσβλέπω  (+ acc ) = to look  at

βούλομαι, βουλήσομαι = to want.  Compare Latin volo, English "voluntary."

γί(γ)νομαι, γενήσομαι = to come to be, becomε, be born

γι(γ)νώσκω = to recognize, know

γράφω, γράψω = to draw, write;   γράφομαι = to indict

γυμνάζω, γυμνάσω = to train (someone); γυμνάζομαι = to train (oneself), to exercise

= to teach

διώκω, διώξω = to chase, pursue

ἐγκωμιάζω, ἐγκωμιάσω = to praise

ἐθέλω, ἐθηλήσω  = to wish, to be willing to

εἰσίν = they are

ἔξεστι(ν) (impersonal) = it is permitted, possible

ἐξῆν, imperfect of ἔξεστι(ν) = it was permitted, possible

ἐργάζομαι, ἐργάσομαι =  to work

ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι = to come or go

ἐστίν  = (he, she, it) is

εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω = to find, discover

εὔχομαι, εὔξομαι  = to pray; προσεύχομαι =   to address in prayer

ἔχω = to have

ἦν = he, she, it was (imperfect of ἐστίν)

θαυμάζω, θαυμάσω = to admire, wonder at

θεραπεύω, σω  = to heal, care for

θύω, θύσω  = to offer sacrifice

ἱδρύω, ἱδρύσω = to establish

κακοποιέω > ῶ, κακοποιήσω  = to do harm, do what is wrong

καταβάλλω  = to throw down

κινδυνεύω, σω  =  to run a risk

κωλύω, κωλύσω = to prevent

λέγω, λέξω  = to say, speak

λείβω, λείψω = to pour

λούω, λούσω = to wash

λύω, -σω  = to loosen

μανθάνω  = to learn

μαρτυρέω, μαρτυρήσω = to bear witness, testify

μένω, μενέω > ῶ = wait, remain

νικάω, νικήσω = to win (a battle), defeat (an adversary)

νομίζω = to consider, deem

οἰκτείρω, οἰκτειρέω > ῶ = to pity, have pity upon

οἴομαι, οἰήσομαι = to suppose, think, believe

ὀνομάζω, ὀνομάσω  = to name

ὁρίζω, ὁρίσω = to separate from, delimit

παίζω  = to play

παίω, -σω  = to strike

πάρειμι (παρά + εἰμί) =  to be present

παρέχω, παρέξω = to provide

παύω, -σω = to stop (someone or something); παύομαι = to cease, come to a halt

πείθω, -σω  = to persuade;  πείθομαι  = to listen to, obey  (someone in the dative)

πέμπω, πέμψω = to send

πίνω = to drink

πιστεύω, πιστεύσω = to trust, believe in

πολιτεύω / πολιτεύομαι  = to act as a citizen, be a citizen

πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι   = to go, walk, march, travel

προσβλέπω = to look at (+ acc)

προφέρω  = to bring forth (cf. φέρω)

προσεύχομαι = to address in prayer

ῥίπτω = to throw on the ground, cast out

σέβω, σέψω, later σέβομαι = to worship, be pious

σπουδάζω, σπουδάσομαι  = to be earnest, to pursue earnestly

σῴζω, σῴσω   = to save

τρέπω, τρέψω = to turn (someone or something); τρέπομαι = to turn (intransitive, “turn oneself”)

τρέφω = to nourish

τρέχω = to run

ὑβρίζω, ὑβρίσω = to act with wanton violence, to outrage

φαίνω =  to show, make visible; φαίνομαι =  to appear

φέρω, οἴσω  = to carry, bring

φεύγω = to flee, shun

φοβέω, -ήσω  = to frighten, fear; φοβέομαι  = to fear

χορεύω, χορεύσω = to dance

φυλάσσω (Attic φυλάττω)  = to guard, protect; φυλάσσομαι  = to defend oneself

ὠφηλέω, ὠφηλήσω  = to help



ἐγώ = I

σύ  = you (sg)

ἐκεῖνος,, η, ο = "that ...," he /.she / it

ἡμεῖς = we

ὑμεῖς = you (pl)

ἐκεῖνοι,  αι, α =  "those...," they (the plural nominative of ἐκεῖνος,, η, ο)  


Pronouns or Adjectives


ἀγαθός, ή, όν = good, brave

ἀνδρεῖος, α, ον = brave

δίκαιος, α, ον = just, righteous

ἐμός, ή, όν = my (possessive adjective)

ἐχθρός, ά, όν = inimical

θαυμαστός, ή, όν = admirable

καθαρός, ά, όν = pure

κακός, ή, όν  = bad, cowardly, evil

καλός, ή, όν = fine, noble

μακρός, ά, όν = large, great, long

μέγιστος, η, ον  =  very great, the greatest

μέσος, η, ον = middle

μικρός, ά, όν = small

νέος, α, ον  = new, young

ὀρθός, ή, όν = straight, correct

πλούσιος, α, ον =  rich

πολύς, πολλή, πολύ = large, great / neuter = much; plural = many

πονηρός, ά, όν = wicked

σοφός, ή, όν = wise

Φαρισαῖος, α, ον = Pharisee

χαλεπός, ή, όν = harsh, difficult

χρήσιμος, η, ον = useful

χρηστός, ή, όν = beneficial, good

χρυσοῦς, ῆ, οῦν = golden.  This is a contracted adjective.  



ἀεί / αἰεί = always

ἔτι = still

καί may be an adverb = also, too

κακῶς = badly

καλῶς = well, nicely, nobly

μή  = no, not (used instead of οὐ  with commands)     

μᾶλλον (comparative adverb) = more, rather

μόνον  = only

νῦν  = now

οἴκαδε = “home” in the sense of “homeward”

οὐ = no, not

οὐκέτι = no longer, not any more

πολλάκις  = often  

τότε = then, at that time


Prepositions (list 1-8)

With the accusative

ἀνά + acc = up along

διά + Acc  = on account of

ἐς, εἰς  + acc = to, toward, into  a place

κατά + acc = down (along a road, the river), denoting motion; according to, throughtout  

μετά + acc = after

πρός + acc = to, toward

ὑπό +  acc = moving toward the foot or base of (a tree, a mountain)


With the genitive

ἀπό + gen  = from, away from a place

διά + gen  = through, across; 

ἐκ + gen  = out of a place

ἐπί + gen = on, upon

κατά + gen = down from

μετά + gen = with

πρό + gen = in front of,  before

πρός + gen = from

ὑπό  + gen = by the personal agent of a passive verb


With the dative

ἐν +  dat = in or at a place

ὑπό +  dat = in or at the foot or base of (a tree, a mountain)



ἀλλά = but

διότι = because

εἰ = if; εἰ καί = even if

ἐπεί, ἐπειδή = when, since

ἤ  = or

καί = and

ὅτε = when

οὔτε ... οὔτε = neither... nor

ὡς = just as, as



ἆρα often introduces a question. It should not be translated.

γάρ  (postpositive) = for (causal)

δέ (postpositive) = "and" or "but," depending on the context.

δή (postpositive)  = indeed, certainly, in fact

καί...καί = both... and

μέν ... δέ = when used as a pair of correlatives, they may connect or contrast two elements. They may be translated literally as "on the one hand"..."on the other hand."  For μέν ... δέ  see Lesson 3

μέντοι (postpositive)  = nevertheless

οὖν = therefore

τε (postpositive)  =  and

τε ...  τε (both postpositive) = both... and